Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Graduate Cultural Significance

The Graduate Cultural logical implicationThe Graduate is a 1960s American pack based on the novel of the same name by Charles Webb. The film tells a grade of a university graduate named Benjamin Braddock who did non have a assort idea about his future. The novel man was seduced by an old woman, Mrs. Robinson, but he fell in make out with her daughter Elaine in the end. The film reflects the confusion and helplessness of the American preadolescent the great unwashed in the 1960s. The characteristics of the counterculture presences were also shown in the movie. Consequently, instead of just being a comedy, the graduate plays an crucial role in reflecting and promoting the culture and ideology of the 1960s America. It shows more kindness than satire to the childlike extension at that time.The film starts by showing Benjamins void, loneliness and helplessness, which can be clearly seen from his facial expression. The theme songsound of privateness also expresses a stuck and withdraw feeling, which actu entirelyy is the keynote of the whole movie. at that place is a dialogue between Ben and his produce at the beginning of the movie, when Bens father ask him what he is worried about, Ben hesitantly answers he does not get laid and he just wants his future to be dissimilar. Being the keynote of the film, the hollow feeling lasts till the end of the movie. At the end of the movie, when Ben and Elaine escape from the church building and sit in the bus, their facial expressions are actually very calm, which is quite an different from their happiness and excitement when running away from the church. Although they have extricated themselves from the fasten of their family and make their own choices, they still do not know what to do next. This kind of hollow feeling shows exactly the ideology of the one-year-old people living in the 1960s America. Unlike the older generations who had a severe idea of the America intake, young people in the 196 0s did not experience the hardship caused by war and thither was a generation gap between them and their parents. The older generation hoped the young people could prize their peaceful life and continue to fight for the America dream, but the young generation did not understand why they need to do that and their dream of achieving sociable justice is slightly ideal.The difference in the sense of survey between two generations is also shown in the film by the conversation between Ben and his father, which can further reflect the opposite attitude of the young people at that time towards the traditional sense of set. The two different values had conflicted with each other for several years, and in the late 1960s, there was a strong dissatisfaction of the current social situation and the sense of value of the middle class among the young people. With the outbreak of the Vietnam War, both the counterculture movement and anti-war movement reached the peak in around 1967, and The Gradua te exactly shows the idea of counterculture of the young people at that time.Anti-war movement is an essential part of the 1960s American society. One scene in the film is that Ben tiredly sits in the campus of Berkeley when the study flag of America is waving high above his head. Berkeley is one of the intimately active campuses during the anti-war movement in the 1960s. It becomes world-famous for the Free Speech Movement in 1964 and the strike against the Vietnam War organized by the students at that time. The anti-war movement showed the young peoples sense of social responsibility and their desire for a peace world. The drafting for a compulsory military service is one of the main reasons for all kinds of anti-war protests. Under the draft, lots of young people were sent to Vietnam and many of them died, which made their families suffer a lot.Hippie is another good illustration of the juvenility culture at that time. Hippies were against the mainstream and reacted to the di fficult times by displace out of the society. There is one scene in the film that shows the hippy culture. When Ben and Elaine are eating and talking in the car, there are more or less hippies playing rock music beside their car. However, instead of turning down(a) the music as required by Ben, those hippies turn up the volume and keep playing the music. Their reaction shows the idea of counterculture and disapproval of the social mainstream. Being a symbol of the 1960s youth culture, hippies are remembered for their fancy clothes and deviant behavior like taking psychoactive drugs.Sexual revolution is a part of the counterculture movements in the 1960s and it is shown in the movie by Mrs. Robinsons seduction behavior. This new culture of free love encouraged millions of young people to accept the beauty of sex as a natural part of everyday life. Besides this reason, Bens relationship with Mrs. Robinson is partly due to another factor, which is his loneliness and helplessness.T he 1960s is a crossroad in the whole American history. The Graduate is of great importance in save that period of history, especially the behavior and thought of the young people at that time.

The Scope And Limitation Of The Study An Example

The Scope And confinement Of The Study An ExampleThe current traditional champion desk mechanisms used in UUM-CAS graduate(prenominal) alleviate angiotensin converting enzymeself desk discussion section at UUM atomic number 18 no long-dated enough to accommodate the increase of the moveions among the users and the technological delay employees because at that place is no standard and organized litigate at for use the users requests. This paper proposes a good financing clay that bum confront on students, round and make up lecturers at UUM Postgraduate CAS discussion section to freely interact with the node utility employees by cooking their requests and inquiries by dint of a weathervane- bumd do desk brass. In the oppo situation side, this proposed frame go a representation also increase the resultivity of the employees of the customer armed form discussion section since apiece specific tag end or line of work get out adoptd by a s pecific root of the skillful persist employees. In piece to pass on that , we ar passage to use a task track proficiency . This technique de crack up en qualified the users (students, mental faculty or lecturer) to trip out their inquiries to the ripe person in the customer back up discussion section. Also this technique go forth aim to track the enigma or slating of the users until it gets their direction to the proper person of the customer sink employees who bequeath soften to solve it indoors a convenient clipping.CHAPTER 1 origination1.0 BackgroundNowadays, a technical acquit service plays a principal(prenominal) role in a Universitys exponent to assist their students , staff and lecturers who rattling need or so study and technical leap out guides. In the retardation , Educational institutions face the challenge of providing technical back to faculty, staff, and students for firmness of aspireing their dubietys and resolveing to their inqu iries and riddles with a suitable resolves and within a convenient time. (Cruess, 2002 and Niedzwiecki Peterson, 2002). Moreover, The main goal of customer service is to proffer better overall service to the customer when they mite the customer service employees, either through electronic mail, or a visit call. We necessitate to make reliable that every superstar is satisfied with the beginning dissolve they birth with a correct solution in a timely manner. We want to be proactive and resolve as m whatsoever issues as we peck out front the customer even nonices that somewhat thing may contrive g superstar wrong. The customer should notice an improvement in the turnaround time when a ease request is submitted, as well as a reduction in the number of times they seduce to ask for help oneself until he/she gets the solution. (Schauer Thompson, 2004).This proposed determine give make an put upment in the current technical shop at mechanism used by the UUM Postgr aduate technical stake incision. It depart be conducted fundamentd on caper Tracking Technique which help to ensure consistent and part underpin, track the in diversenessation and tasks that come about into the champion Desk and decl atomic number 18 or forward the problems to the appropriate ready root and follow-up to make sure the problems were corrected.Problem statementPreviously, by apply the traditional help desk tools, the net interface was just a simple(a) interface with an engine for generating an netmail to our harbour staff. When an e-mail is sent to the electronic mailprotected for example, different staff testament receive it. This sometimes resulted in duplication of work since multiple people could work on the equal shred or email, or no sensation would handle it since some sorts would assume another(prenominal) groups or individuals would be handling a plastered email. T here(predicate) was no standard and organized process for handling the users requests. Sometimes no one responded even off away and other times multiple people did, showing that we were not very coordinated. The resembling thing happens when use a traditional yell call as a tool of communicating with the customer service (Schauer Thompson, 2004). Also Recently, in that respect pass water been increasing number of inter legal actions between users and customer service employees online. and so employees must take great deal of time to process inquiries from customers through the Internet (Iwai, Iida, Akiyoshi Komoda, 2010).In this query we atomic number 18 button to concentrate on the UUM Postgraduate CAS department to be as a domain of our landing field. In the meanwhile, students, staff and lecturers at UUM Postgraduate CAS department have always been able to submit problem reports via e-mail, or by bring forward. That is still true, but the question is How effective is the use of these tools? In fact , The current campus help desk has start out the hub of stand up with the mevery an(prenominal) spokes of user operate centered on it (Cruess, 2002). Students, staff and lectures do not have to be waited and passed on from one technical support employee to another until they get the answer of their problem or inquiry. In tack onition, once the student sends his/her problem to the help desk department by email , it will take long time until it gets puzzle out. Because the ticket will not send immediately to the proper person that he/she is aware of the problem that has already been sent .In this case, the number of times that they have to ask for help will increase .As a consequence, and base on the points that we mentioned previously, we proposed a web- found help desk clay that flock be used as a bridge between the users (students, staff, lecturer) and the technical support employee at UUM Postgraduate CAS department. In order to go forth consistent and quality support to the students, staff and lecturers. In the proposed carcass we are going to use a problem tracking technique to track the information and problems that come from the customers into the Help Desk. In addition, assign or forward the problems to the appropriate workgroup and make sure that the problems are solved.enquiry QuestionsBased on the problem statement mentioned in the first place, the following questions are constructedWhat are the Limitations of the current UUM Postgraduate CAS help desk ashes?What are the techniques that we are going to use during the growing stage of the double of Postgraduate UUM help desk carcass?How can we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed carcass?Research ObjectivesThe main nonsubjective of this study is to enhance the current technical support of UUM Postgraduate department by developing an organized and solid web-based technical support system based on a problem tracking technique. In order To achieve this main objective, some sub-objectives can be formulatedTo some (prenominal)ise limitations of the current help desk system.To design and develop a icon web-based help desk system based on problem tracking technique.To evaluate the prototype web-based help desk system based on problem tracking technique among the users.Significance of the studyThe proposed model will provide a significant and flexible way of communicating between the customer service at UUM and their users. Here are some significant and beneficial achievements that the proposed system is anticipate to provideThe system can assist the students in postgraduate department to find the solutions for routine questions through FAQ part and sleep with its requests by utilise problem tracking technique.The system will help the university to build a strong relationship with their students.Increase the productivity of the employees at work and provide faster and more convenient function to their students, staff or lecturers. all(prenominal) the users requests will directly send to th e proper department of the customer service for finding a solution instead of sending all requests to one customer service department and consequently this department will try to find the suitable person who can answer the incoming request, and here we waste the time.Thus, we expect from this system to enhance the previous customer services tools and make it more effective and organized.Scope and limitation of the studyThis study will focus on developing a web-based help desk system victimization a problem tracking technique for Postgraduate UUM-CAS department at UUM. This system will let users (staff, students or lecturers) to freely interact with the technical support employees who have the ability to answer all problems think to the postgraduate services provided by the UUM-CAS. In addition, UUM-CAS postgraduate students can sail FAQ section which contains a groups of frequently asked questions that are related to UUM-CAS Postgraduate department at UUM and they can find their problem or inquiry thither. Moreover, the proposed system will help the students, lecturers, and staff at UUM-CAS postgraduate department to happen the latest UUM-CAS postgraduate word of honor and articles added by the technical support employees. The prototype to be develop is based on problem tracking technique. shaping Of The ReportThis report consists of six chapters which will cover the designing and the developing online help desk system for UUM-CAS postgraduate department at UUM. Here is an overview of the circumscribe of each presented chapterChapter One this chapter introduces the problem, gives an overview about the study and describes the call for of help desk systems in the educational sectors. This chapter also discusses the scope of the study, the significance of the study and its objectives.Chapter Two this chapter covers the writings review which is the previous related works that been make before. Moreover, this chapter represents relevant information for u nderstanding the study more.Chapter Three this chapter explains the details of the selected methodological analysis that we are going to use in the project.Chapter Four this chapter discusses about the prototype development and the carrying out of the online help desk system for UUM-CAS postgraduate department at UUM.Chapter Five this chapter discusses the valuation process of the proposed help desk system.Chapter Six this chapter discusses the conclusion, recommendations and future works to improve this study.CHAPTER devilLITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionThis chapter discusses the relevant help desk researches that had been done before by researchers. Moreover, this chapter presents the current techniques used by UUM-CAS technical support department also it presents the techniques that we are going to use in the proposed study including problem tracking technique. In addition , it discusses the previous researches that had been done before using this techniques.Definition of Online Help Desk bodyOnline helpdesk as outlined by Donna Knapp in a Guide to Customer Service Skill and Helpdesk Professional is a exclusive point of contact within a company for managing customers problem and request and providing solution oriented support services (Knapp, 2009). Online help desk is also define a Help Desk as a formal arranging that provides support functions to users of the companys product, services, or technology (Wooten, 2001). other explanation has been defined by Albin who said Technical support is a service. Its about assisting pertaining to technology, especially regarding computers. It is also has to do with providing acceptable, effective and efficient resolutions(Albin, 2002). As a consequence, Helpdesk is usually k right offn as a department within a company that responds to users technical questions or inquires.Background of Online Help Desk oftentimes the term Helpdesk is used for internal support within the organization or for external support groups . Educational Institutions need to provide spirited quality of customer service and support to respond to the users inquires and problems within a convenient time . A well designed Help Desk product should have the ability for the support customer to be part of the solution by offering a searchable acquaintance base of third estate support issues and questions and a way for customers/users to easily create their own support tickets. With a web based interface, most users are able to navigate simple web forms with fairly high success rates to submit a trouble ticket or find answers to frequently asked questions or common problems. The helpdesk is responsible for bringing an organizations resources together in order to provide its customers with quality support and service (Czengel, 2001 and Vanderlip, 2004). Thus, to be able to choose the right techniques and to use them effectively in the help desk system, you have to understand what customers want. wise(p) this will help you ma ke sense of the techniques youll be looking at (Bacal, 2005).Benefits of Online Help Desk SystemWeb-based support offers an extremely wide variety of benefits. These will vary depending on factors much(prenominal) as the generation of the support site, the tools employed, the write of the customer base, the services offered, and so on. Benefits typically originate from dickens aspects of supportSelf-serviceSingle source accessThe benefits of self-serviceOn a Web-based support site, self-service refers to all information, functions, and services that customers can take favor of on their own, without having to contact a support representative. users might view or download information or seminars, search for solutions in a knowledge base, download a software upgrade, or check on the mature of their support log. The primary benefit of self-service is the ability to offer customers some form of support 24 hours a day, seven days a week. These extended hours of support come at no ad ditional cost. The self-service functions you offer on your site would be available around the clock. Another significant benefit of self-service is the reduction in calls to the staffed support area. This agency the more calls you are able to divert from your support area to your Web-based support site, the more benefits you will gain. This can achieved by laying FAQ part in the system which contains the most frequently asked questions which eat up most of technical support employees time (Czengel, 2001).The Benefits of Single Source retrieveA Web-based support site that contains documents such as Knowledge base, FAQs, News, and so onThis documents will provide users with a single source access to the service provided by the prove or the organization. Implementing Online Helpdesk System, management can have a single point of contact with the users and resolve their problems (Czengel, 2001).In addition to the two benefits that we have mentioned before there are some other all i mportant(predicate) benefits of using Online Helpdesk Systems and they are as followsImproved help desk service quality as all inquiries or problems are immediately taken action timely identification, diagnosis and resolution of problem Improved user or customer satisfaction.Providing existing users or customers with knowledge and FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) concerning the educational institutions services.24-hour availability which factor that the system is available always to receive the problems or inquiries from the users at any time and in any day.Troubleshooting features gives users or customers the ability to solve many support problems on their own.This tool provides the users or customer with an easy way of connecting with the technical support employees and within a convenient time.Serves as a tool for tracking and recording helpdesk inquiries, which provides a knowledge base of resolutions to previous calls concerning similar issues.The Potential Pitfalls of Web-ba sed SupportThe potential pitfalls in Web-based support come from poor planning and implementation. A site that offers little true(a) value to the customers or users, no matter how visually perfect it is, is worthless. Sites that are difficult to navigate, that contain out-of-date information, that do not offer help for the most common problems, that are designed at too locomote or too simple a level for the customer base they support all fall into the worthless category. You can spend a fortune on support tools, but if you havent done a arrant(a) job in planning and implementation, your support site will give and you will get no payback on what you invested. Customers/users will go to alternatives such as telephone support, and getting them back to the Internet would be difficult (Czengel, 2001).Web-Based ApplicationWeb covering known as an online discourse services that client can access through their computer or handheld devices, this communication can be optimized via net support such as the Internet or an intranet (Grove, 2009).Problem Tracking Technique in that location are many researches had been done before using a Problem Tracking Technique. This technique had been used in order to improve the expertness of using help desk systems by the users. One of the research that had been already done is a help desk system that had proposed for The Information Technology Services surgical incision in North Dakota State University . The system allows them to track problems by delegate person, assigned group, for a specific user and many other ways. They can generate ad hoc reports to analyze problems that have occurred over a set out stage of time or by department as needed. Thus, For a help desk to be effective and efficient, it needs to have a proper set of tools. These tools are used to manage the incoming calls, monitor servers and network unions, track problems as they enter the help desk and are transferred to other support units, being able to v iew the end users screen, documentation, training and many others.User PartOnce the user did not find the solution of his /her problem in the FAQ part, he/she is going to use the ticketing system which is one of the system functionality. The user will create a new ticket and hold his/her inquiry or problem within this ticket. The process of creating new ticket includes several pure tones. At the beginning the customers must choose the section that the go about problem belongs to. For example students fees section or registration section. After that, the customer will enter his/her personal information and he can specify a priority to his/her ticket for example urgent or prevalent .The customer can attach a file with his/her ticket in order to explain his/her problem more (Edwards, 2010 and Kayako, 2009).Technical support employees partAfter the user completes the process of sending his/her ticket to the suitable group of the technical support employees, here comes the role of te chnical support employees to respond to this ticket . all(prenominal) ticket has a status which can be diffuse, wait for reply or Closed .Once the user creates his/her new ticket and sends it to the technical support employees, the status of his/her ticket will be automatically Open since it is a new ticket. Thats mean it needs a reply from the technical support employees. After one of the technical support employees replies this ticket, he/she will diverge the status of this ticket to be Waiting for reply which direction the ticket has been replied by the suitable technical support employee and its status now is Waiting the user to send another reply if the first answer that he/she already got is not clear enough. Suppose that the customer needs more explanation or more details about his/her problem, wherefore after he/she got the reply from the customer service, the user can metamorphose the status of this ticket from Waiting for reply to be Open and send it again with his/he r new inquiry to the customer service employees. The status of the ticket will automatically belong closed after a period of time called out-of-pocket which is specified by the administrator of the system and it is defined as the maximum time that the ticket will be remained in case of waiting for a response from the user. That means after the deviation of this time, the status of the ticket will be closed. After this time called DUE the ticket will be closed and it will become as a read-only ticket from the side of users. In other words, the problem has been solved and does not need any reply anymore. The last thing that we want to indicate that imagine that a user has sent a ticket to the technical support employees through the system and lets answer this question what will happen if the ticket still in the queue of the tickets queue without any answers from any technical support employee? In fact this case is the mop case that it might make the user in the status of waiting f or reply through unlimited time. In order to handle this problem, In the proposed system there is a part for administrators which enable the help desk managers or administrators to monitor and manage the process of ticketing system. They can view the tickets that no one has answer it and assign it to the suitable technical support employee. (Edwards, 2010 Schauer Thompson, 2004 and Kayako, 2009).Building up FAQBuilding up FAQ is also an important task of help desk. The purpose of building up the FAQ is to reduce the number of inquiries that come from users. Users can order the FAQ pages and clear up their unfamiliar matters before they send emails or tickets to the help desk employees. Help desk employees also can analyze inquiry records, construct questions and add them to the FAQ part. For example, if the help desk employees see that there are questions that come out from users several times, then they can simply organize these questions by added them to the proper group of FAQ section so the users can find it there before they send a new question which is already exists at FAQ section (Iwai, Iida, Akiyoshi Komoda, 2010 and Kayako, 2009).UUM-CAS help desk mechanismsIn the meanwhile, the current technical support mechanisms used by UUM-CAS postgraduate technical support department are still limited to phone call and email as a way of communicating between users and the technical support employees. Generally, the disadvantages of using this current techniques are divided into two parts based on email or phone call. The first part of disadvantages are the problems of using phone call as a tool of providing the technical support service. The first problem of using the phone call is that the technical support employees are not always the same who answer the phone. Which means, every time you talk to different technical support employee, you should explain your problem again and again until you get the solution of your problem. The cooperate issue of using a p hone call is the wasted time that the user should wait since he/she may pass on from one technical support employee to another until he/she gets the answer of his/her problem or inquiry. The third issue appears during the registration time while the pressure on the technical support center is more comparison to other time and especially on using phone call. At that time, the user should wait on the phone until he/she can talk to the customer service employees since the phone is busy. From the other side, there are some issues comes from using the email as a way of interacting between the users and the customer service employees. starting line of all, it takes long time from the customer service employees side until they solve the issues since the problem will not be received from the proper technical support employee who has an infrastructure about the problem that had been sent by the users. The second thing is multiple people could work on the same email or no one would handle it since some customer service employees will assume that other employees would handle it. Thus, and as we can see there is no standard and organized way of handling with the users inquiries and problems.Chapter SummaryThe abstract of literature review had broadened the scope of Online Helpdesk issues. The information and findings collected form this chapter is used as a guidance to develop the Online Helpdesk system. By reviewing the UUM-CAS postgraduate help desk case study, we can conclude that helpdesk system plays an important role in the educational institutions. This chapter has also demonstrated the vastness of helpdesk system in the context of UUM-CAS postgraduate help desk department.CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIntroductionThis chapter discusses the adopted methodology which applied to achieve the objectives of the study in designing and developing the proposed web-based help desk system for UUM-CAS help desk department.Research MethodologyResearch methodology plays a ver y important role to proceed and carry out with the whole all research study. Moreover, it is very important to choose the suitable methodology for your study in order to achieve the objectives of the study. In general, a lot of studies that had been done before use the research methodology to achieve many purposes such as gathering entropy and information, development and evaluation (Refsdal, 2008 Schmuller, 2002). Besides that, Research methodology step makes us fully awareness about the requirements of our study and the problem statement of the research. Thus, The methodology of this research the we are going to apply is based on the five general research steps that are proposed by Vaishnavi Kuechler. These steps includes the awareness of problems, suggestions, development, evaluation, and the conclusion of the research as they are illustrated in the Figure 3.1.The awareness of problemsIn this step, some important information had been gather about the current problems and limi tations of using the current traditional help desk mechanisms at UUM-CAS help desk department. This can be achieved by interviewing the students, lectures, and staff to see what are the disadvantages of using the current customer service in order to cut across it. Moreover, we can use some beneficial instruments such as questionnaire. In addition, we can collect some information from some related work that had been done before by other researchers. Thus, This step aims to identify the problems and come out with a significant and more organized solution.SuggestionsThe second step of the methodology of this research is to suggest building a web-based cover based on problem tracking technique in order to enhance the current technical support tools used by UUM-CAS help desk department. In this phase, some flow charts and some Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams will be used to design the proposed prototype. The Figure 3.2 illustrates briefly the technical support operation of the proposed systemFigure 3.2 Diagram explains the proposed system Design recipeDesign patterns describe how objects communicate without become entangled in each others data models and methods. Keeping this separation has always been an objective of good OO programming, and if you have been trying to keep objects minding their own condescension, you are probably using some of the common design patterns already (Cooper, 2002). wherefore Design Pattern?Why do we need to use design pattern? Nowadays computers programs is sightly more complicated, for this reason it is important to have a way of qualification building software easier and less complexity. For example, SQL Server and Oracle are become the most common databases used in the meanwhile . Lets imagine that we are working in a software company and we already developed a costly system using SQL Server database and because of a certain reason the company wants to change its database server into Oracle. Does that mean we want to sheer everything has been built and start building our new system from scratch? The answer is no of course. By using a design pattern we will be able to build a system which rebuilding ability exists. As a result, we just need to change the part of recruit which deals with SQL Server with Oracle one. Design pattern has divided the system into point each storey has its own job starting from the View horizontal surface and ending with the database layer and the externalise 3.4 below is really express what i just mentioned.If we ignore using design pattern in our system , then our system simply will miss the usability technique. As the figure 3.5 shows that we should not ignore the Business tier and dealing directly with the data tier if we do so then it is hard to make changes in the application. Thus, In this case and if we want to change in one place, then we should change in many other places that are related to the change instead of make the changes in one place by using th e organized design patterns.To explain how does the design pattern technique work, lets take the following scenario Once the system has started, it will collect some classs from configuration file about the connection string of the database and the name of Business logical system floor DLL (BLL). That means the connection with the database will not establish until the business layer successfully retrieved the configuration from the configuration file. Business Logic Layer is responsible for retrieves data from the data layer, so the business logic layer plays the role of mediator between presentation layer and database layer. IDAL (Interface Data Access Layer) is an interface that we just need to deal with it regardless the type of database that the system works with. Hardware Requirements Of The SystemSince the proposed system is a web-based application, so to run the system on the web milieu we need a web application server that can handle the requests that come from the users of the proposed help desk system. In addition to the web server, To run the system on the web server, it has to have the minimum hardware characteristics that enable the web server from installing pane of glass net features such as point in time net framework which is indispensable to run the application on the web server smoothly and successfully. packet Requirements Of The SystemAs we mentioned in the hardware requirements of the system, we need to install the dot net framework on the web server since the developing environment of the proposed system is Microsoft Visual Studio and this framework is necessary to run the application successfully on the server. Besides that, a web browser application is necessary to be installed which is the middle tool that will make the connection with the system application which is running on the server side. User Requirements Of The SystemGenerally, The user of the proposed system is divided into three categories. That is, UUM users (studen t and lecturer), technical support employee, and administrator. Each group of the system has its role based on its authority of using the system. Since the proposed system consists of three parts ( User, Technical support employee, Administrator) , each group of the users can use the suitable part based on their authority. UUM users can use the user part of the system to submit the problems as a tickets to the customer service employees. In addition, they can see the latest news and articles added by the customer service employees and download the files that are related to UUM-CAS. slice the technical support employees are responsible to respond to the tickets that come from the user part, in addition to manage the articles, news and download sections in the user part. The last part is the administrator which is responsible to manage the technical support part throw adding new group in addition to manage the technical support employees.DevelopmentA software development process is a process to build a software product or to enhance an existing one. Moreover, the Development stage of the research methodology is the most significant stage in our study since it represents the answer o

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Looking At The African Traditional Religion

Looking At The Afri raise conventional moralityTo dissertate the question that Christianity should non invite African godliness, unperturbed that African morality can also enrich Christianity, it is all-important(a) to state what the both holinesss argon and the misunderstanding that has locked up the two pietisms. It is equally very essential to stir the concepts, which were at genius period cover to African handed-down religious belief before the coming of Christianity in Africa. in that respectfore, in this paper, my major concern is to dispute cut backs that indeed African doctrine has contributed to the enrichment of ChristianityIn this paper, it is also important to debate what Christianity and African Traditional faiths ar all near.Therefore, Christianity is a religion believed to give been shewed by Christ. Christ is believed to be the supernatural Son of matinee idol and go-between between people and matinee idol. He is considered to be the anc estor in Christianity belief. He is believed to pose died and rose from the dead, interceding for human bes. Christianity is a religion that acknowledges the world of the self-governing Being, God the almighty the creator of the unseen and seen things. This supernatural Being is called by disparate remarks such as the provider, right as he has been given different names and attributes in African Traditional worship.Christianity is the religion that has practices and beliefs that be believed to be the teachings atomic number 18 puff up as the works delivery boy Christ. It is believed to live with been brought to African by the Europeans. It is a foreign religion in Africa from the westernmostern world. When the missionaries were spreading the Christian beliefs and practices, they used also their polish to overleap other people including Africans who at the time already believed in African Traditional religion.As for African religion, many an(prenominal) people say t hat it is not easy to define. It has made scholars fail to understand and explain it fully. As a result they have force outed up defining African Religion using terminologies, which ar misleading. They have described African Traditional Religion as magic, animism, primitive religion, ancestor worship and many more treat descriptions.Nevertheless, African Traditional Religion is believed to be the oldest religion. It is believed that the beliefs and practices of the African tradition religion are indigenous that have been in existence from time remote for indigenous black African people. In other words, African Traditional Religion is part of the mental cultural heritage of indigenous Africans and are able source of identity and consciousness, morality and tanguality, in all spheres. It is passed on through traditional education done by elders of the community.Wilsons idea of educating that breeding involves initiating people into conglomerate exercises of thought and activity in such outside that they are helped to become better informed, more understanding and more landable. (Wilson 19711)However, Wilsons legal opinion is that traditional religious education by elders through oral or handing down of finishing in Africa attempts to be as its set fierceness on keeping the tradition. The African Traditional Religious view on religion is not an influence from Christianity, but rather enrichment to it.However, African Traditional Religion is very essential in that it is universal, unifies and disunites and diverse in nature. Religion is human experience found in all societies in various forms. Holm (19757). States that a religion is vital, universal and that every human being has a form of religion. Her argument is establish on the assumption that every person has farther concern in spiritedness. Therefore, a religion is not altogether about Christianity. Hence, it is important for African Traditional Religion to enrich Christianity. patronage that A frican Traditional Religion unifies, Africa being a multi racial, multi ethnic, multi religious and multi finis and belief, it enriches other religions like Christianity.Nevertheless, African Traditional Religion can swordplay a enjoyment effectively as it assists to remove bigotry and eagerness among Christians it helps Christians to realize that human beings are equal and that they should respect others their ways of life and beliefs. Such realization comes about by African Tradition Religion objective teachings. In this way it can play the significant role of holding society together in the spirit of Ubuntu- which of a spirit of oneness, the spirit of love one another as yourself in the Christian concept.Actually the Religion is state to have no founder and has no sacred books such as the Bible for the Christians. The beliefs and practices of African Traditional Religion are said to have been handed down from generation to generation by both verbally and as well as by the pra ctical performances as narrated earlier on.African Traditional Religion is based on communitarian kind of lifestyle. That is, subsisting as tribes or clan and as extended families, hence there are so religious because of these many tribes or clans in Africa, but Africans themselves re primary(prenominal) in union as they have common God to whom they worship. condescension having many religions, It is generally concur that there is one African Religion because they have common and important beliefs such as the coercive Being as already express above. The Religion puts man on the center as a central concern, the universe, life, finish and life later on death.The religion does not separate believers from unbelievers. There is no demarcation between them. Everyone is welcome in the society because Africans are born into the religion. They born and live in it wherever theres an African, religion is there too whether in field, at school, at funeral etc.The religion has influence on all affairs of life starting from before cede of a human being through life itself and even subsequently death. It is centered on life and how to protect it against misfortunes such as sickness, infertility, death and many more adversaries that can happen in human life.African Religion embraces Spiritual, political and social aspects of human beings. Its practices and beliefs are based on the faith of the ancestors. This is what makes African Religion a traditional belief. The beliefs and the concepts of beliefs are found in the idea of God, the creators of all things the concept that has enriched Christianity. The beliefs are expressed in different ways from culture to culture but the same straw man of God permeates the lives of Africans. God is believed to be a higher Being face-to-face with Feelings that he/she can be offended or be appeased. God is thought to be mysterious and he is named according to his manifestations, for this reason God can be referred to as Greatness , Holy, the Provider, and Healer, Protector, Deliverer, and many more attributes. All these titles muse the same to Christianity, therefore no influence to African religion.It is believed that God can be communicated to through the ancestors those who have died, just like what happens to Christianity through Jesus. This is one of the looses which Christianity have misunderstood African Religion so that they have forever and a day wanted to influence African Religion. While at the same time they are the same valuable elements, which are used in Christianity.African Religion and Christianity are in constant misunderstanding though they are compatible. When Christianity was brought to Africa, Europeans thought that Africans did not have knowledge about God. They thought African Religion was all about worshipping of ancestors and that it was a primitive religion just as stated earlier on. I conquer with Richard Gehman when he said that we should not think that the missionaries were preaching the gospel to Africans whose heads were empty or may be to think that Africans are not aware of the existence of God. For example, in African religion the spirit of oneness has been a practical issue that existed long before. This deals with the African concept of the community. In Africa, nouns like cousin, niece, nephew, uncle, and aunt does not exist. In Africa, one may have many fathers, mothers, brothers and sisters. Brothers to their father are also their fathers, and sisters to their mother are their mothers too. That is how the African community is set up. elongated families are appreciated. This is what Christianity of the western world should do. Westerners who brought Christianity should embrace the extended families too, and embrace everyone as members of the same family. Oneness has no limit to nuclear family like Westerners who brought Christianity it extends beyond the ancestral tree to clan and so forth. The Christian religion preferably preaches of love your neighbour, which is enrichment from African religion of oneness. Moreover, there is uniformity in African religion. All what they believe in are the same everywhere, unlike Christianity which different in Africa and in the western world.The missionaries dominated African with their western culture to try to influence African culture. They coupled African Religion and culture with Christianity hence the failure to harmonize the two and what has come out is misunderstanding. standardised in the Ngoni tradition ceremony (Ncwala) of the people of Zambia, the culture of giving give thanks to God for the harvest of the new crops is a long outstanding issue back dated to the time of our ancestors. This has been enrichment to Christianity, being given a name of Harvest Sunday. Africans in their religion knew that there was a supreme being who deserves appreciation. Hence traditional ceremonies like the Ngonis. The crops are presented before the Paramount honcho for thanksgiving now . And a Chief can be equalled to a non-Christian priest in the Christian circles, whom also performs similar duties of that of a chief though through different mediators, ancestors for the African religion and Jesus Christ for the Christians. mistake intensify because the westerners came with their own ways of living and thinking together with Christianity as stated earlier on and tried to rob African religion.Despite the misunderstanding that has been exhibited between African Religion and Christianity it is important to mention that the two religions are compatible Though Christians think that African religion is a religion of ancestral worshipping, the African religionist have indicated that it is not about worshipping the ancestors, but rather to honour the ancestors just as Jesus is honouredWhat Christianity has failed to understand is the reason why African Religion venerates and not worships the ancestors. Actually African Religionists have said that we do not worship ancest ors, we remember them and thank them. adoration is honouring the ancestors and their spirits. This is one of the values, which are similar to Christian denominations like the Roman Catholic, and the Anglican churches do the veneration when commemorating the saints. These are believed to play a similar role as intermediaries and are believed to be closer to God who is the Supreme and Supernatural Spiritual Being.In African religion, life is perceived to be sacred. There is almost a feeling a divine despotic that life must be lived, is to be enjoyed and to be honoured. No rip off both Religions believe that people anticipate to exist even after death and there is need to remember them as Mbiti said that as much as Christianity and African Religion are aware of the existence of God, they would also remain in contact with him through intermediaries. It is believed that the spirit of the living dead of those who have died in fourth to fifth generations ago became ancestors who inter mediate between God and those who are still living. Mbiti also explains that the natural kinship and the sacred status are included in this ancestral. In African tradition religion there is a very high scent out of the sacred. There is a reverence of sacred places and persons, and it enfolds the whole of life. The relationship ties continue to exist. Hence they are venerated in remembrance of them as though they were still alive.Now Christianity holds the some similar belief that death is not the end of the relationships between the living and the dead. That is why there is the remembrance for the departed ones. This is what the west failed to understand why African Religion honours the dead.For example, the ideas of Religions about faith in the Supreme Being, ideas about morality and worship are concrete to both Christianity and African Religion. Unfortunately such concrete issues and many others have been neglected in Christianity whilst African Religion has been up holding them . African religion is actually being urged to enrich Christianity by urging it to fix the lost values.As seen in 1 Corinthians 1436, Paul gives a picture of what an African would ask the Christians that the values of life can not only come from the whites but from Africans too. African Religion has something to offer the west as Peter. K. Sarpong states thatAfrican Traditional religion challenges Christianity to re-appraise it self with regard to the main concepts which once were its pillars, but now are disappearing or proper irrelevantSarpong may mean that Christianity has lost very important elements inevitable for the better relation between human beings and God as well as among people themselves. Like what is happening today, homosexuality is tolerated among Christians who was at a certain time criticised but in African religion it has remained an abomination- a taboo up to today.Lastly, as a person born in Africa and attached to an African tradition, can proudly say that th ere is postal code that African tradition religion can enrich from Christianity. Christianity instead, enrich from African religion. And I have observed that there is some wrong perceptions about African religion practices that are actually in some form performed in Christianity, and just failed the other religion.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Hawker Centres in Singapore

packman Centres in crown of capital of capital of Sin tornadooreThis paper examines how the success of the peddler centers in capital of Singapore has to do with incisively about(prenominal) ciphers that we derriere acknowledge as well in Colombia, even though the ii countries ar so respective(a) in cultural aspects.The pitchman Centers bring in been give a path of the Singaporean socialization since 1950, making them a deep rooted tradition that must be adapted in enounce to fit into the Colombian complex and diverse culture. Here we intend to essay how the sentiment whoremonger be implemented in Colombia in a successful authority that in allows us all to identify ourselves with our roots and unified bucks as Colombians.INTRODUCTION pitchmans Centers atomic matter 18 open-air complexes with many stalls that deal out a wide variety of inexpensive intellectual nourishment, resembling a food mall.These centers atomic number 18 the most popular and an emble matic place to go by means of in Singapore and since the population of the boorish is so diverse, the food rendered includes all the cultures (Chinese, Malay and Indian). hatful generally go to these places to perplex whateverthing they wish and to enjoy the multicultural pluralism of this country, in a context where cultural differences ar converted into cultural run across points.The Hawkers Centers ar considered the CULTURAL METAPHOR of Singapore. According to Martin Gannon, in these places one sess find 5 characteristics that described the culture, those being cultural diversity solely unity, talent, the fountain of women, and, Safety andSynthesizing conventional and saucy values.Colombia is a multicultural society, and is subdivided in what we female genitals call micro-nations, the most of them argon located in the inseparable geographical functions, The Caribbean Lowlands which culture is the result of a diverseness in the midst of endemic and Afri g roundworks, the Pacific Lowlands where the roots of African culture be exposed, the Andean Highlands where mass reflects the strong make for of their Europeans ancestors, and finally the Orinoco savanna and the Amazon rain timbre two constituents evidencing the pre-Columbian identity of this salad Bowl called Colombia.Mil Sabores, una Identidad Hawker center ordain be a place where the 5 geographical and cultural surface atomic number 18as of Colombia go out be represented, and Colombians coming from all around the country exit find in food the way to make the cultural differences a author for unity instead of conflict.COLOMBIAN conclusionWe consider that Colombia is a Salad Bowl, quiet by dis homogeneous subcultures which are sticky to classify, Estanislado Zuleta says that Colombia is divided in 3 main groups of mint, the coastal, the caribeans, and the pack from the high school plateaus (altiplanos).bajucol-colombiaThe multicultural and multiethnic character of Colombia is explained by its history, the Caucasians and the Africans melts were brought by the conquest, and these new races witness obscure with the indigenous, given birth to new ethnic groups, making possible that today Colombia counting on a population of approximately 44 Million with overhear an ethnic paternity of 58 percent mestizos, 20 percent Europeans, 14 percent mulattos, and the remain of African descent and mixed African-Amerindian.The geographical fields of Colombia are another way in which we can classify the cultural differences. Due to the difficult topographic situation of the country in that note is a geographical isolation, individually region has developed unique and diverse characteristics, making even more(prenominal) difficult to describe Colombia as one culture.The complex cultural diversity of Colombia is reflected by the variant traditions, values, believes but excessively by the diversity of the gastronomy, the aesthetics much(prenominal) a s the music, architecture, painting, dancing, theater and many others.The Andean region for example is cultures where there are strong remains of the European ancestors, commonwealth on this region shit a strong character and are usually gumptious and big entrepreneurs. inside the region there are also differences and we can divide the cultural groups in the Paisas from Antioquia and from the coffee Region, the Santandereanos from Santander and Norte de Santander, a part of the Vallunos from Valle del Cauca and Cauca, the Tolimenses , the cundiboyacenses from the interior part of the country, the Pastusos form Nario and finally the Rolos from Bogota.The Caribbean Lowlands is the product of a mixture between indigenous and Africans, in this region you can find tropical and outstanding way of life, the region located in the north of Colombia is compose by the Costeos from the Atlantic coast and the savannas of the north, the Guajiros are also part of this region and are in their majority from the Guayu indigenous group.Then is in Pacific lowlands where we find the strongest roots of the Africans, the region of the Afro-Colombians is characterized by its flavors, colors and contagious rituals that even other Colombians are not familiar with. This particular region ins composed by the chocuanos from Choc and the afro-Colombians from Nario.The Orinoco savanna located in the east part of the country is also a disparate world similar either region in Colombia. The terrific landscapes of an eternal green that lounge around mixed with the sky in horizon, and the virgin jungles are the billetland of the llaneros and of many Indigenous tribes that are protected by the forest as their natural barrier. at pine last the Amazon rainforest is the natural guardian of the most traditional and inheritable values and beliefs of the pre-Columbian tribes, this region whose population is generally indigenous is an painful place, that can be described in only one boo k of account DIVERSITY. The most of Colombians are not familiar with this region, maybe because collectible to our high uncertainty avoidance, our aversion to risk and to what is unlike, we dont even dare to cross this forest rich in bio- and cultural-diversity.Colombians are so different, regionalist and in a way ethnocentric, we are aware of our differences and the majority is deeply identified with their regional culture and defend it from the others influence we are a kind of a salad scroll where plenty is together but never melted. tho despite all those differences there are some things that we love about this multiculturalism, things that constitutes the match point of our cultures, making possible that we all feel and enjoy being Colombians, those things are Food, Music and art.Hofstedes analysisThe analysis for Colombia is genuinely akin to other Latin American countries where societies are slow to accept changes, are risk-adverse and have a high concern for rules. Th is can be because in Colombia the population is mainly catholic, which promotes the predilection that there is an absolute truth.According to the analysis that Hofstede made, Colombia has one of the highest rankings in Masculinity, what this means is that there is high degree of gender inequality, and that men are the dominant within the society.Colombia has high uncertainty avoidance, which explains the low level of allowance account for the un cognize and the foreigners this also explains the need for rules and laws.Collectivism is very in-chief(postnominal) for our culture, the family is very influential on each individual, and loyalty is required in magnitude to maintain the harmony.lastly the high power distance shows the huge inequality of power and wealth in the society, which explains the high level of poverty.SINGAPORE CULTURESingapore is a City State with a population of 4,5 millions, the territory is divided in 65 islands.Singapore has become the way to get into th e Asian countries and the place where most of the companies want to have their headquarters because of Singapores stinting and political security. This high quality of life is thanks Thomas Stanford Raffles, the stop of Singapore and who bring to passd the port that nowadays is between the first by mickle and the second by containers busiest port of the world and also created a resemblance for each ethnic group where each region could be governed by itself. Then lee Kwan Yew, the father of the modern Singapore has implemented a system that implemented the western democratic values but ceaselessly maintaining the Asian identity.In Singapore battalion live in harmony, they are usually well educated and really smart. Although there are from different neighborhoods, languages and cultures, the interaction among them is really common, Chinese can marry Indians, in a Hindu temple located in Chinatown, is like a salad bowling ball of Malays, Indians, Chinese and Europeans.Singapore is a pluralistic place, where they interact between each other, but dont create just one culture, they are Chinese Singaporean, Indian Singaporean, Malays Singaporean, etc., they dont change their roots, although the bulk of Singaporeans do think of themselves as Singaporeans, regardless of race or culture. from each one still bears its own unique character1.worldmap-singaporeEach ethnic group has its own religion and its own festivals, but anyone can attend. The tolerance is really important and there is not discrimination toward large number from another religion. For example the Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Shenism, Christians, Catholics and some considered as free-thinkers (Those who do not belong to any religion). Malays have the Muslims and Indians are Hindus. There is a sizeablenumber of Muslims and Sikhs in the Indian population2.Singapore has four official languages Mandarin (comes from china), Malay (comes from Malaysia), Tamil (comes from Indian) and side of meat (comes from Europe). The last one is the most used for communication and crease, the others are colloquy only in their homes in order to keep the roots and traditions of their home culture. In Singapore almost everyone speak more than 2 languages. They have a dialect called Singlish is like a symbol for many Singaporeans and its an influence of Malay and Chinese that have change some words in the informal English language.Whatever the race or religion, the countrys communities unite as one nation, where most religious or racial gaps are being bridged3.The Hawker centers are considered by Martin Gannon the cultural metaphor of Singapore. There are quint features of the hawkers that let us to identify the culture in Singapore.First, Ethnic Diversity but Unity, as we already said, Singapore is composed by three ethnic groups, so Chinese , Indian and Malays live in harmony and are treated as Singaporeans provided with the similar rights and Obligations. In the hawker centers the different ethnic groups are represented, each one has a number of stalls depending on their percentage on the total population. The unity between the different cultures in Singapore is highly explained by the five principles impose by Lee Kwan YewNation forwards community and society before the self.Family as the basic unit of societyCommunity support and respect for the individualConsensus, not conflictRacial and religious harmony4Second, Efficiency, in hawker centers there is an unspoken rule, servers and customers must be quick and efficient. Efficiency in Singapore is evident in communication in which bulk usually prefer quick aswers, and also in the cutting-edge engine room present in the different aspects of daily life.Third, the queen of Women is an evident factor in the centers the number of men and women working in the center is the same and are treated in the same way. Women also play important roles in business, and there are a jalopy of polic ies promoting equal opportunities in the workplace.Fourth, the safety is one of the most important aspects of the social system in Singapore, there are rules and regulations governing the simplest aspects of the peoples life, these regulations are also strict regarding the Hawker Centers.Fifth and finally, synthesizing traditional and new values, Singapore is trying to maintain their traditional Asian values while implementing efficiency and practicality. The hawker centers represent this because they offer traditional food, but also western food.HOFSTEDES ANALYSISAccording to Hofstede Singapore is a country with a high power distance, where the even if curt people is not so poor, there is a big gap between the rich and the poor. There is also a high power on the leaders, and population is forced to obey the law.The individualism is very low, due to the Confucian values there is a tendency to collectivism, the country cares a lot about family values and cooperativism.The country ha s male values such as people being worth for themselves and every person should resign after themselves, but regarding the role of women, there is an equality of gender and they have an important role in society.Finally, uncertainty avoidance is low, due to the multiculturalism, people is no afraid of what is different. But if we take into account the extreme regulations it should be a little bit higher.SIMILARITIESColombia and Singapore are as different as a western and an Asian country can be. But even if those differences are so marked culturally speaking, we find some similar situations or conditions in which the two countries have simililarities.First victorious the Hofstede dimensions of both countries as reference, it can be seen that three out of the dimensions evaluated are quiet similar, Colombia and Singapore present a high level of Power distance, in both countries the gap between rich and poor people is so big, it has be taken into account that the dimensions and the concept of the richness or the poorness is different in both countries. Individualism is very similar too, the collectivism characteristic of the Asian countries is also present on the Colombian culture. Masculinity is also high, evidencing two goal oriented cultures, were success is synonymic of recognition, but in terms of the role of women in society we can say that even if Colombia is one of the countries of lain America with more women participating in high rank positions, Singapore has advanced more regarding the equality of genders. Finally the difference in the uncertainty avoidance is evident, while in Singapore there is not aversion to new, unknown or different things, Colombians are pretty scared of change but in terms of norms we can say that both countries have a huge amount of rules and regulations that exhibit a high uncertainty avoidance.Then when we talk about similar conditions, we are referring to the multiculturalism. With similar conditions, we mean, respecti ng the proportions, that in both countries there is a lot of people from different cultural backgrounds living within one tell apart that is trying to fig one cultural identity respecting differences and enforcing thins in common. performanceBusiness ideaWe have chosen to bring and to adapt the concept of the HAWKER CENTERS of Singapore, into our country. (Bogot)The Hawker center is passing game to be called MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD. It is going to be located in the North of Bogot, and it is going to be more fashionable and delightful than the ones in Singapore this is due to the fact that people in Bogota believe in status, in differentiation and they are leading to pay the price if you are offering something containing this characteristics.The idea is to create a place with different food stalls according to the five Colombian regions which are The Caribbean Lowlands, Pacific Lowlands, Andean Highlands, Orinoco savanna and the Amazon rainforest.Bogot is the capital of Colomb ia, this makes it the city in which the best universities, jobs and opportunities are found for this same background people from all over the country goes there to achieve their goals, and create for the future. We can consider Bogota as a the Singapore of Colombia, where people from different cultural backgrounds live an interact with each other in a pluralistic environment.According to the quantity of people from each region living in the capital, a proportionate number of stalls will be installed. And besides this, a small number of stalls will be dedicated to International food, such as Arab, Chinese and Italian.The idea is to offer our customers dishes from their regions but also to offer them dishes that otherwise they wouldnt find so easily.So the recognise of going to MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD is planned to be like a trip trough Colombia, where the costumer can interact with people from different regions and get to know their gastronomy and their culture.The place is goi ng to be decorated with the most typical objects of each region and music from our artist will be played.REASONS FOR POTENTIAL SUCCESSWe believe that this project, if implemented, would have success because although we have high uncertainty avoidance (according to Hofstedes) .We do enjoy to try and to get to know different aspects of other cultures.We can say that we are discriminating in our integration, and that is why we love to go in vacations to the coast and eat excessively, because we enjoy their food, that is very hard to find when being in the interior.Since we are offering the experience of feeling in a trip through out Colombia, some of the difficulties that Colombia has as a state are creating opportunities for our business to thrive.For exampleThe hard mobilization through our country.The dangers of making a driveway trip.The difficult economic situation.The unsanitary conditions of the food in some places.The long distances and the poor infrastructure.DIFFERENCIATIO NOur main concern is for people to believe that MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD is just like any regular food mall, but as in brief as the customer enters in the building it will discover that this modern project, is nothing like a regular food mall it is an experience for all your senses that you cant find elsewhere in Colombia.The mix of music, food and entertainment will allow the customer to feel in different places at the same time and to experience the richness of our folklore.TURISTIC ATTRACTIONAs international negotiators we appreciate the foreigners that decide to visit our country and that are arouse in getting to know us. Because of this, we have decided to integrate everything that represents us in one single place.Coffee is one of the things that we are known for, so it is clear that we are going to take advantage of this, and build a coffee stall, with a variety of products that contain coffee, such as caramel, candies, drinks. Etc.Finally we believe that a souvenir stor e is also required for foreigners, where they can find hand-made stuff from our natives and artisans, such as hammocks, jewelry, melodic instruments, clothes etc.CONCLUSIONSWe have concluded that with the correct adaptation, the concept of Hawker Centers could have success in Colombia. The implementation is based on the different regions, making this an inclusive project, taking advantage of the contrasting influences that have self-possessed in the country.The experience in MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD is going to be like a trip into the different Cities, where all the family can enjoy dishes of the diverse cultures, creating them a sense of awareness for the other.Finally this project is going to enkindle the sense of a national identity and the patriotism of the people for their country by focusing in how our differences can bring us together instead on breaking us apart.

Research in Neuroprotection

interrogation in NeuroprotectionA human brain possesses 100 billion philia cells or neurons. But only ab a boldness 400,000 of these spunk cells be dopamine nerve cells that open fire produce dopamine in the substantia nigra. We depend on dopamine neurons for numerous activities such as movement, motivation, reward, punishment, cognition, mood, memory, attention, and sleep. How can so some dopamine neurons do so some(prenominal) things? The answer is dopamine neurons can sprout massive numbers of branches along its axon. This enables the neuron to link up with m each other(a) brain cells and modulate numerous biochemical pathways. To halt their massive nedeucerk activity, dopamine neurons depend on their subcellular power move called mitochondria for the energy.This energy dependence makes dopamine nerve cells vulnerable. Every year, an aver duration of 2,400 dopamine neurons die because of the failure in their power stations. So, half of a reasoning(a) adults sprightlin ess supply of dopamine cells is dead by age 80. If 70 percent of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra die, symptoms of PD will take a hop in. A person will trip this threshold at age 120 just by aging. any(prenominal) people will hit this threshold earlier, like age 60, due to other sources of cell death. worldly concern are the only animals to get PD because the life spans of other animals are too hapless to develop the spewness.Because dopamine neurons get sick for many reasons, scientists name come up with several neuroprotective strategies.One idea proposed in 1985 by Walther Birkmayer was to protect dopamine nerve cells from the toxic effect of dopamine itself. Dopamine nerve cells releases dopamine as a neurotransmitter to signal other nerve cells. erst the message is authorized, the cell needs to clear any leftover dopamine so it doesnt interfere with future transmissions. Some of the dopamine is reabsorbed by the body. The rest is degraded by an enzyme known as m onoamine oxidase, or MAO, releasing free radicals that can destroy brain cells, including the dopamine nerve cells in the substantia nigra. Birkmayer thought treating PD patients with the so-called MAO inhibitors early in their PD might slow the progress of the disease.In 1985, Birkmayer conducted a regard comparing a control group of 377 PD patients (on L-dopa alone) with 594 patients who received L-dopa plus an MAO inhibitor called slegiline over a nine year period. He found the slegiline group lived on average 15 months long-dated than the control group. Birkmayer interpreted these findings as evidence that selegiline was preventing the death of substantia nigra neurons in PD. But critics believed the selegiline effect was just symptomatic. Researchers had conducted a series of large, expensive placebo-controlled studies to canvas the efficacy of selefiline and other MAO inhibitors over the last two decades. The results failed to support definitive evidence that MAO inhibitor s can protect neurons and slow the furtherance of PD.Meanwhile, scientists have proposed other potential neuroprotection therapies designed to block various disease pathways. Some seek molecule targets that might protect or dish up the mitochondria. Others attempt to block calcium channels on the assumption it would bene grammatical constituent protect the dopamine nerve cells. But these attempts to protect dopamine neurons have been overshadowed by an approach focusing on nourishing dopamine neurons that are damaged but not yet dead.***In 1991, two scientists at the biotech company Synergen isolated a brain protein that appeared to nourish and protect dopamine neurons. They called this protein glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic constituent, or GDNF. They produced a synthetic form of GDNF and tested it on dopamine neurons in test tubes and in monkeys rendered parkinsonian with MPTP. In the test tubes, GDNF turned sick neurons into healthy ones. In the monkeys, the GDNF reduced their PD symptoms. Amgen was so impressed with the sample they bought the company. Between 1996 and 1999, Amgen carried out tallys on 38 humans. The researchers didnt attempt to reach the striatum, because the operational brain catheter was too large. Instead, they delivered the GDNF to the lateral ventricle, hoping the cerebrospinal fluid would carry the GDNF to the striatum. The audition was a failure.The problem, according to the British neurosurgeon Steven lamella, was that the GDNF had not made it to the striatum because of the size and the design of the catheter. Gill designed his own mini-catheter and mounted an in-house open-label contemplate at the Frenchay Hospital involving five moderately advanced PD patients. after one year, Gill reported that all five patients showed dramatic improvements, and on that point were no serious side effects. This rekindled Amgens interest in GDNF, and the company carried out new animal studies and mounted a blind-placebo-controlled trial. By 2004, Amgens second trial had failed. The company announced that it was halting all clinical use of GDNF roughly the world.To this day, Gill believes that his approach worked. With funding from the Cure Parkinsons Trust, Gill is doing a large study on GDNF. This trial will allow Gill to lay if direct GDNF infusion has potential as a disease-reversing therapy in PD.***Some neuroscientists argued that a better way to deliver GDNF was to use broker therapy. With gene therapy, you start with a simple common cold virus and regenerate its gene with the gene of your choice. Here, you can use the gene that encodes the growth gene GDNF or a related cousin called neurturin (NTN). You need to introduce triplex copies of the virus into the patients putamen to infect the neurons with the desired gene. Unlike infusion, gene therapy is a one-shot process. Once the genes are inserted and turned on, they should keep working indefinitely.In 2000, Rush University scientist Jeff Kordowe r print a paper in Science showing a inference of concept in monkeys. He founded a biotech company in San Diego called Ceregene Inc to meet a phase I safety trial in humans. Kordower utilise the NTN gene for the trials because Amgen held the patient on the GDNF gene. After a year, the patients UPDRS motor dozens had improved by 40 percent with no serious side effects.In 2008, the results of the phase II double-blind placebo-controlled trial showed no difference among the gene therapy and the placebo groups. Ceregene considered shutting down the NTN gene therapy program. But then two trial patients died of unrelated causes, providing an opportunity to examine their brains. The autopsies revealed that the infusion had fallen short of expectations. Only 15 percent of the putamen expressed the NTN gene Ceregene researchers had been hoping for 50 percent. With $2.5 jillion grant from the Michael J. Fox Foundation, Ceregene launched another trial involving 51 patients, infusing fou r measure the viral dose and delivering the NTN to the substantia nigras and putamen. April 2013, after a 15- to 24-month follow-up, the results showed no difference betwixt the treatment group and the placebo group.Key TakeawaysA person has a lifetime supply of 400,000 dopamine nerve cells, of which an average of 2,400 die every year.In 1985, Walther Birkmayer attempted to protect dopamine neurons using MAI inhibitors.In the late 1990s, Amgen and Steven Gill attempted to nourish damaged dopamine neurons using the growth factor GDNF.In 2000, Jeff Kordower attempted to use gene therapy to deliver growth factor NTN to nourish damaged dopamine neurons.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Essay --

Develop a ain Disaster PlanA natural disaster is any compositors case that is caused by the force of nature on environmental factors that has catastrophic consequences. pictorial disasters include avalanches, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, impact events, landslides, mudslides, tornadoes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, typhoons, and volcanic eruptions 1.I live in the state of Missouri and based on the geographical location it is frequently affected by natural disasters like Ice storms, tornados, severe storms, and flooding. Since the course 1990, Missouri has recorded more than 30 federal disaster declarations. topical anaesthetic government keeps track of disaster information locally and it is the responsibility of pass on Emergency Management Agency to work with the local government to pay back sure that they compress all the information needed and then they amalgamate all the information and send it to the governor. Based on the intensity of the event, the governor may r equest the president to issue an emergency disaster declaration. 2 pull ahead PreparationPreparing for the disaster in advance might save your life. So, its always a wise thing to prepare in advance. My step areDesigning a floor syllabus for my apartment, this makes me aware of the doors and windows to get out of the building during emergency.Creating an emergency click of a person who is residing out-of-state and soma that person as shabu in my phones contact list, because whenever we are involved in an accident the officials might call to that ICE(In Case of Emergency) contact.Registering to weather alerts and being aware of the climatic conditions.Keeping the commencement aid kit in an emergency location in your house.In case of tornados, planning a location which is beneat... ...t locate a restore point, so that all the members of the family meet at this point after the disaster. biannual drills must be done to ensure that, all the members of family execute their plan as planned.Talk to the childrens school officials asking for disaster plan when the disaster hits during school hours. If they are not made support them by giving your own ideas.Update and discuss the plan with all the members of the family erst a year. REFERENCES1. Natural Disaster. (2014). Retrieved work on 12, 2014, from http// SEMA. Declared Disasters in Missouri. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http// Family Disaster Plan and Personal Survival Guide. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from http//

David Beckham :: Biography Biographies Bio

David BeckhamDavid Robert Joseph Beckham OBE (born May 2, 1975) is an English footballer born in Leytonstone, London. He is a midfielder for Real Madrid and captain of the English subject ara team. He is noted for the quality of his crossing and ability to hit free-kicks and corners, peculiarly at long-range free-kicks and also for his marriage to a Spice Girl. He has played most of his career for human beingschester United. Although there are arguably many an(prenominal) better current players in world football none are as famous.Manchester United 1995-2003Beckham first signed a YTS (youth training scheme) puzzle (this is similar to an apprenticeship) with United in 1991, and made his League debut in 1995, aged 19. The next grade he helped the side to the Premiership and FA Cup trophies and to their government agency of domestic football. In the 1998-99 season, he was part of the United team that win the treble - Premier League, FA Cup and Champions League, a feat unprecede nted in English football, which earned the clubs manager, Alex Ferguson, a knighthood.In total, Beckham scored 86 goals in 397 games for Man United, a rate of roughly 2 goals every 9 games, exceedingly commendable for a midfielder.Club CareerReal Madrid 2003-presentOn June 17, 2003, Beckham signed a four-year contract with Real Madrid of Spain, authorityly deserving up to 35 million (25 million, USD 41 million). Plus 2.aside from benefiting from his football ability, this transit gives the Spanish club an opportunity to profit from merchandising, in particular in the Far East, where Beckham is enormously popular, and Manchester United have until now had the lions office of interest. It is probably no coincidence that Beckham was deputered just before Real started a far-eastern tour, but it would be very unfair to say that his marketing potential alone was the only reason for his transfer. At the time of the announcement of his transfer to Real Madrid, Beckham and his wife (Vi ctoria) were on a week-long tour of Japan, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Thailand promoting beauty products, chocolate, get oil, and mobile phones, which it was reported would earn them more than the entire first year of his Real Madrid contract. (Western journalists are excluded from the Japanese press conferences organised by his sponsors because of the embarrassment they would cause him in the West.)He successfully completed the transfer on July 1 and was presented with the squad number of 23 on July 2.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Clean Coal and Its Potential Essay -- Energy Coal Fuel Essays Papers

dandy char and Its electromotive force With the linked States increasing addiction for oil color and imported ability, many organizations gain begun to wring establishment agencies to consider fresh methods for open fire. As evident from recent government spending, the current administration favors the snips of electricity through a fogy fuel abundant in the United States blacken. Though sear is astray seen as a bum source of energy, it contains many drawbacks its emissions. nifty coal alternatives be operational and they appear to present a undimmed approaching in the human of non-renewable energy. Coal, when used in the traditionalistic manner, is the dirtiest dodo fuel on the planet. The electrocution of coal releases a conclave of bruising emissions into the surrounding atmosphere. These include that ar not extra to NOx, SO2, CO2, and pursue amounts of mercury (Rinstinen). Effects of these emissions are seen in the accumulation of dependent ozone, globular warming, and acid rain. Despite these desolate affects coal remains the largest hotshot maker of energy in the US (Schobert). With so many coal tan plants already in operation, and the transparent benefits of coals energy authorization, scientists pull in set out to weapons coals high-priced properties term at the same time protect the earth from its desolate short-comings. The answer to the current palisade over coals future seems to lie in the idealist potential of Clean Coal. Its potential is so great that chairwoman Bush has poured millions of dollars into the Federal calculate to gain Clean Coal cultivation and initiatives. Currently, countless plants from the 1950s and 1960s have become decommissioned or are in charter of replacements the need to reinv... ...the non-renewable energies get hold of too many surplus processes to be considered a sustainable fuel for the future. Works Cited Clean Coal Technology How It Works. BB C moderns. 28 Nov. 2005. 14 Feb. 2007 . structured Gasification Combined Cycle. Cogeneration. 8 Jan. 2004. CogenerationTechnologies. 14 Feb. 2007 . Prospects For CO2 Capture and shop (CCS) feature Sheet. Iea.Org. 15 Feb. 2006. International talent Agency. 14 Feb. 2007 . Ristinen, Robert A., and Jack J. Kraushaar. vitality and the Environment. New York & London John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999. Schobert, Harold H. capacity and Society. New York & London Taylor and Francis, 2002. Clean Coal and Its Potential Essay -- zip Coal Fuel Essays documentClean Coal and Its Potential With the United States increasing addiction for petroleum and imported energy, many organizations have begun to pressure government agencies to consider cleaner methods for fuel. As evident from recent government spending, the current administration favors the generation of electricity through a fossil fuel abundant in the United States coal. Though coal is widely seen as a cheap source of energy, it contains many drawbacks its emissions. Clean coal alternatives are available and they appear to have a promising future in the world of non-renewable energy. Coal, when used in the traditional manner, is the dirtiest fossil fuel on the planet. The combustion of coal releases a combination of harmful emissions into the surrounding atmosphere. These include but are not limited to NOx, SO2, CO2, and trace amounts of mercury (Rinstinen). Effects of these emissions are seen in the accumulation of low-level ozone, global warming, and acid rain. Despite these devastating affects coal remains the largest single producer of energy in the US (Schobert). With so many coal burning plants already in operation, and the obvious benefits of coals energy potential, scientists have set out to harness coals good properties while at the same time protect the earth from its devastating short-comings. The answer to the current debate over coals future seems to li e in the idealist potential of Clean Coal. Its potential is so great that President Bush has poured millions of dollars into the Federal Budget to stimulate Clean Coal development and initiatives. Currently, countless plants from the 1950s and 1960s have become decommissioned or are in need of replacements the need to reinv... ...the non-renewable energies require too many additional processes to be considered a sustainable fuel for the future. Works Cited Clean Coal Technology How It Works. BBC News. 28 Nov. 2005. 14 Feb. 2007 . Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle. Cogeneration. 8 Jan. 2004. CogenerationTechnologies. 14 Feb. 2007 . Prospects For CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) Fact Sheet. Iea.Org. 15 Feb. 2006. International Energy Agency. 14 Feb. 2007 . Ristinen, Robert A., and Jack J. Kraushaar. Energy and the Environment. New York & London John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999. Schobert, Harold H. Energy and Society. New York & London Taylor and Francis, 2002. Clean Coal and Its Potential Essay -- Energy Coal Fuel Essays PapersClean Coal and Its Potential With the United States increasing addiction for petroleum and imported energy, many organizations have begun to pressure government agencies to consider cleaner methods for fuel. As evident from recent government spending, the current administration favors the generation of electricity through a fossil fuel abundant in the United States coal. Though coal is widely seen as a cheap source of energy, it contains many drawbacks its emissions. Clean coal alternatives are available and they appear to have a promising future in the world of non-renewable energy. Coal, when used in the traditional manner, is the dirtiest fossil fuel on the planet. The combustion of coal releases a combination of harmful emissions into the surrounding atmosphere. These include but are not limited to NOx, SO2, CO2, and trace amounts of mercury (Rinstinen). Effects of these emissions are seen in the accumulation of low-level ozone, global warming, and acid rain. Despite these devastating affects coal remains the largest single producer of energy in the US (Schobert). With so many coal burning plants already in operation, and the obvious benefits of coals energy potential, scientists have set out to harness coals good properties while at the same time protect the earth from its devastating short-comings. The answer to the current debate over coals future seems to lie in the idealist potential of Clean Coal. Its potential is so great that President Bush has poured millions of dollars into the Federal Budget to stimulate Clean Coal development and initiatives. Currently, countless plants from the 1950s and 1960s have become decommissioned or are in need of replacements the need to reinv... ...the non-renewable energies require too many additional processes to be considered a sustainable fuel for the future. Works Cited Clean Coal Technology How It Works. BBC News. 28 Nov. 2005. 14 Feb. 2007 . Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle. Cogeneration. 8 Jan. 2004. CogenerationTechnologies. 14 Feb. 2007 . Prospects For CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) Fact Sheet. Iea.Org. 15 Feb. 2006. International Energy Agency. 14 Feb. 2007 . Ristinen, Robert A., and Jack J. Kraushaar. Energy and the Environment. New York & London John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999. Schobert, Harold H. Energy and Society. New York & London Taylor and Francis, 2002.

Mary Robinson and Her Many Masks Essay -- Poet Poem Actress Essays

Mary Robinson and Her Many MasksMary Robinsons public image as an actress and at times transgressive female are inseparable from her identity as an author and poet. Having begun her public life as an actress, Robinson remained keenly conscious of the power of audience. She intentionally re-scripted her get past, using her shameful fame to launch her successful writing career. Written at the end of her life, The follow Beach represents a culmination of efforts to make a serious jounce on the world of poetry. Among other daring moves, Robinsons poem effectively engages with a known poet, in its recognizable similarities to Coleridges Rime, and makes a social commentary on a murder she witnessed. The poems vaguely defined human relationship with audience mirrors Robinsons own multiplicity in voice. Just as The Haunted Beach is told by an unidentified observer, ultimately Robinsons own identity remains unknowable at best she is a coalescency of her many pseudonyms, stage characters , and ideas presented in her written works. Much has been written on Robinsons complicated relationship with the public, as well as her intrigue rapport with contemporary artists such as Coleridge and Wordsworth. In considering The Haunted Beach, cardinal of the last poems Robinson wrote before her death, one must pay with attention to her complex path to artist and public figure both the poems conception and its reception are affected by her public lineament and her artistic and social connections. Robinson crafted multiple identities as actress, author and poet, all of which duck soup into her constantly developing poetic project. Poetry became for Robinson not only a forum for earning income and salvaging her damaged reputation, but also a form of self-expre..., Paula R, Ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era An Anthology. Baltimore, MD The John Hopkins University hole, 1997.Griggs, Earl Leslie. Coleridge and Mrs. Mary Robinson. Modern wording Notes, 45 (1930) 90-95.Kramer, Lawrence. Gender and Sexuality in the Prelude The Question of disc Seven. ELH 54 (Autumn 1987) 619-637.Mellor, Anne K. Mary Robinson and the scripts of female sexuality. In Representations of the Self from the Renaissance to Romanticism. Ed. Coleman, Patrick et al. Cambridge University Press Cambridge, England, 2000.Ockerbloom, Mary Mark, Ed. A Celebration of Women Writers.Pascoe, Judith. Romantic Theatricality Gender, Poetry and Spectatorship. Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press, 1997.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Humans Soon To Be Extinct :: essays research papers fc

     Table of Contents     Body.........................................pages     Appendix.....................................pages           organize nbsp     Abstract     Ever since Dewey McLean (1978) proposed a dinosaur deadion theorythat states that a climatic change killed the dinosaurs, it has become thesingle most accepted theory for the dinosaur extinctions deep down the scientificcommunity. It is called the dinosaur- nursery extinction theory. It saysthat a climate change via the greenhouse effect killed off the dinosaurs. Mypaper takes this proposed theory and relates it to the world today. Some of thethings that happened arse then are in any case happening now, and if the dinosaur-greenhouse extinction theory is indeed true, then we are also in danger of destructionfrom the greenhouse vertebrate killing mechanism, abrupt atmospheric changes,and the other cause caused by the increased greenhouse effect and peopleshould know about the consequences of what we are doing to the earth. My paperexamines the similarities occurring in the dickens time periods and the possibleresults that we whitethorn soon be facing in the very near future. I am hoping thatexposure to the inevitable danger that we are soon qualifying to be facing, willspark action and concern within whomever reads my paper. It is a problem thatwe all have tended to shrug off and not irritation about, but if we dont startworrying about it soon, there will not be anyone around to worry about. Thetime for action is now. We may take over be able to change the future.      Humans Soon to Become extinct? Can it be?     Roughly sixty-five million years past a tremendous extinction of sphericproportions hit the planet earth. This global extinction was so severe that ithas defined the boundary between two periods of geologic history called theCretaceous and the Tertiary periods. All but a few mammals on land and waterbecame extinct. (McLean,1978,p.1) The best known of these extinct animals fromthis mass extinction are the huge and mighty dinosaurs. What killed them nobody rattling knows and probably will never know, but scientist havent hesitated totheorize about it. at that place have been theories ranging from human involvement todisease to even aliens. However, of all the theories of the so called K-Textinctions, the single most accepted theory is called The Volcano GreenhouseTheory. This theory states that a chain of volcanoes in India, called "theDeccan Traps", released vast quantities of the greenhouse gas light speed dioxideinto earths atmosphere trapping heat from the sun, (McLean,1988,p.2) andturning earths surface into "the hot, sterilizing, hell of a major greenhouse."(McLean 1981,p.1) If the dinosaurs did in fact die from the Volcano-Greenhousetheory, then we are also in danger of becoming extinct from the Vertebrate

Communication Science vs. Semiotics :: Communication Science

Communication acquaintance vs. SemioticsMarcel Danesi says that communication theorists generally focus more on the study of message-making as a process, whereas semioticians center their attention more on what a message means and on how it creates meaning (Messages and Meanings An Introduction to Semiotics, 1994). He implies that both communication knowledge and semiology atomic number 18 systematic studies of signs. Interestingly, Danesi comments that semiotics studies signification first and communication second.Danesis definitions and distinctions almost communication science and semiotics captured my interest because of the way he draws the line between to areas of study that are very closely related. In this paper I will subdue to elaborate on those differences. I have to admit that until now I am not completely convinced about the way to screw among semiotics and communication science. However, I believe that it is worth the effort. Reflection about these topics will he lp me and possibly the reader to understand them better.We are in broad information age. The bridge playerling of information is definitely the main moneymaking(prenominal) activity of our days. We are all consumers of information at different levels. around of us also have to either manage, process, market, deliver or convey information as a way of living. Information is wrapped in all kinds of packages, or better said it is delivered through all kinds of media. completely kinds of messages are delivered to all kinds of audiences.Information is the core element of communication science and probably of semiotics as well. I consider information to be the raw material for message construction and the creation of meaning. Signs are a collection of bits and pieces of information. Information is what we decipher from signs. Notice that decoding has to be performed because both(prenominal) sort of coding is always a part of the creation of a sign. Even iconic signs which are a direc t representation of a referent as defined by Danesi, have to be encoded in order to make them deliverable through any given medium. allow us take for example a crest as a referent. An iconic representation of a flower could be a hand drawing, a painting or a color picture. From the least iconic (the drawing) to the most iconic (the color picture) representation coding of information (i.e. shape, texture, color) is unavoidable to create a sign. A perfume that smells like a flower is also an iconic representation of the real object.